Faced with the enormous diversity and complexity of road phenomena in the road network, the need for monitoring and flow control is growing. The object of detection and the way to continue this activity does not currently comply with codified standards. Thus, the results are often heterogeneous, partial, different in quantity and quality. Therefore, the need to define a standardized project methodology for operators and industry analysts was also confirmed.
These recommendations are designed to meet this need. They point the way to the reference design, offer a set of tools and technologies that can be used for monitoring, offer some operational procedures that should be taken into account at the design stage, determine useful work to ensure the completeness of the project activity. The new road code, on the other hand, explicitly provides for the creation of a road monitoring system as part of a more general activity aimed at creating national archives and registries in order to contribute to “Improving the safety level of the entire national network. In particular, they are dictated, inter alia, by the following instructions:
1. Throughout the entire road system, monitoring devices for detecting traffic should be installed, the data of which is intended to create and update the national road archive and to determine the points of greatest traffic congestion.
2. Street owners must install the devices mentioned in the previous paragraph, and, at the same time, where necessary, devices for detecting noise and air pollution, in accordance with the latter, directives of the Ministry of the Environment, after consultation with the Ministry of Public Works.
“The introduction of traffic monitoring systems seems appropriate, as well as to improve road safety, as well as to meet many other needs. More specific goals can be defined in relation to specific interests. The functions that can be triggered by a traffic monitoring system are numerous. In the future, some of them are recalled.
• Traffic Laws. • Information for users. • Paid management. • Parking control. • Fighting violations. • Driving assistance. • Monitoring of level crossings. • Security in tunnels and protection of works of art.
MOTION MONITORING SYSTEMS. Modern transport technologies and traffic monitoring is an information chain consisting, as a rule, of the following parts:
• sensor: a device that provides a descriptive signal describing the characteristics of a detected phenomenon;
• detector: an electronic device capable of encoding a signal generated by a sensor;
• transmission: a system useful for transmitting encoded information from a sensor to a detector, from a detector to a local unit, from a local unit to a central unit;
• processing: designed to provide processed data, starting with data coming from detectors; it can be centralized or take place, at least in part, at local units (measuring stations). The complexity of the traffic monitoring system varies depending on the goals of the monitoring itself, the methods or technologies used, the chain of measurement, transmission and processing of information.
In general, 3 macro components can be distinguished a priori: 1. quantities to be detected (traffic variables); 2. data acquisition methods and detectors; 3. functions involved in data collection. A possible classification of monitoring systems can be obtained from a combination of the following elements: • spatial expansion of the area to be monitored (limited territory, large, urban, suburban, etc.).
The design object is the elements suitable for the complete determination of the structural, organizational and operational characteristics of the monitoring system, depending on the purposes for which the system was developed.
The project must provide all the documents necessary for a complete presentation of the monitoring system in all its technical and cost components; The project will include: • technical, descriptive, explanatory and substantiation report. Starting with the characteristics of the area to be monitored, it should communicate the goals and objectives of the project, indicate the geometric and functional characteristics of the infrastructure and transport services, a description of the structural, organizational, functional and cost characteristics of the system. monitoring developed; • graphic drawings at various scales, capable of highlighting the geometric, infrastructural and location elements of the monitoring system, as well as other details that can be clearly presented, in order to provide a clear contour overview of the area into which the system falls; • a time chart of activities containing an indication of time intervals and the duration of the phases into which the project will be divided.